For the most part, gardeners and landscapers have figured out how to deal with the deer in their area. The majority will use a spray on repellent of some type but this requires re-application every few weeks or months depending on the type. Some area may simply be too large to spray effectively and there needs to be a better solution found.
Electronic deer repellent methods come in many varieties. None of these shocks the animals but some do use low voltage as a deterrent. The ones that shock the deer let off a charge no more powerful than a static electricity jolt, which in no way harms the animal but does effectively keep them from coming back.
These are small units that are placed in the ground and have a deer lure attached to them. That is right, I said, “lure”. The idea behind these is to get the deer to approach an area where they are not wanted and zap them. This “trains” them not to come around and can be very effective when protecting a perimeter of a property.
Others utilize a stream of water triggered by motion detection. Either these are hooked to a hose or there are some self-contained units available that come with tanks. These are easily moved around and contain a solar cell so there is no need for electricity to operate them.
The majority of these methods are very effective on deer of all varieties. It is a simple matter of finding out which one is most effective for the deer in your area. These may all be found by going online and doing a detailed search which not only will reveal all the available products but can aid in researching which is most effective in your area of the country.